What is Sinusitis? Sinusitis Symptoms and Sinusitis Treatment

Sinuses are bony air pockets that run through the skull. It is there from birth, and it is not fully developed until adolescence. The overall number of people can be as high as 16–18. The cheekbones and temples, in particular, are the largest. Each sinus has a pinhead-sized opening that opens into the nose. The mucus on the interior of the sinus is constantly moved by minute hairs, and it is covered by the same covering as the nose.

Each day, the sinuses and nose create about 600 mL of mucus. This discharge travels first to the nose, then to the nasal area, where it is ingested unknowingly. Sinuses occupy space in the head, help to shape the voice, filter bacteria and dust particles, humidify inhaled air, and clear it of particles. It requires a solid mucous membrane (cover), strong shaggy hairs, and a functional hole to accomplish this.

Mucus builds up in the sinuses when the physiology of the sinuses is disrupted. If the pathology continues, mucus will build up and act as a reservoir for germs, causing inflammation and sinusitis.

What are the signs and symptoms of a sinus infection?

Nasal congestion and chronic postnasal drip are the most frequent symptoms of sinusitis. Contrary to popular belief, sinusitis does not cause a lot of headache. Only acute (newly produced) sinusitis causes a headache. A headache, tension, and a feeling of fullness, particularly in the temples, are present. Swelling under the eyes is possible. Coughing fits occur on a regular basis.

Acute (simple) sinusitis is defined as a sinus infection that lasts less than three weeks and responds to therapy. Nasal discharge is typically light yellow in color and comes with a headache. Chronic sinusitis is defined as a condition that lasts more than three weeks and does not respond to treatment. Chronic sinusitis is characterized by a dark yellow nasal discharge and a lack of headache.

The results of the doctor’s examination and the patient’s complaints are enough to make a diagnosis. There is significant edematous mucosa, yellow or dark light-colored discharge in the nose on nasal endoscopy. Swelling under the eyes is possible. The conchae (flesh in the nose) is primarily enlarged. Nasal discharge is a common occurrence. When a conclusive diagnosis cannot be made during a routine ENT exam, radiographic tests (such as sinus radiography and sinus tomography) may be required.

Do sinusitis headaches occur as a result of sinusitis?

Sinusitis is the first thing that springs to mind when people hear the word “headache.” Studies, on the other hand, reveal that this is not the case. 5–10% of headaches are caused by sinusitis. In addition, headaches from chronic sinusitis are nearly non-existent. In new-onset (acute) sinusitis, headache is a common symptom.

Nasal congestion, yellow-green nasal discharge, fullness in the eyes and temples, cough, and post-nasal drip all occur before the headache in sinusitis. The location of the headache is also crucial. The temporal sinuses cause pain in the temples; the cheek sinuses provide pain under the eyes, in the root of the nose, and on the face. The neck is where the most posterior sinus (sphenoid sinus) pain is noticed.

What causes sinusitis?

The pathologies that cause sinusitis are:

  • Allergic rhinitis: the sinus mucosa due to allergies swells and closes the sinus openings, which leads to sinusitis.
  • Smoking: Smoking for a long time disrupts the function of the shaky hairs on the covering that covers the sinuses, disrupts the self-cleaning function of the sinuses, and leads to sinusitis.
  • Nasal polyp: Polyps in the nose, called nasal polyps, disrupt the mucosa, both disrupting the shaky hairs and impairing the cleaning function, leading to sinusitis. In some syndromes, such as cystic fibrosis (in the pediatric age group), immotile cilia syndrome, cilia movements in the sinus mucosa are disrupted and cause sinusitis.
  • Microbes: Some viruses and bacteria cause sinusitis by increasing edema in the sinuses and clogging the sinus openings.

Methods of Sinusitis Treatment

Drug therapy is used to treat sinusitis at first. The most critical part of the treatment is keeping the nose open. Saline washes and nasal sprays should be used to help with this. Furthermore, nasal decongestants, cortisone nasal sprays, syrups, or pills that help with mucus clearance can be employed. Antibiotic treatment should be administered if the sinusitis is suspected to be bacterial, ideally for a minimum of 10 days.

Patients are treated with antibiotics for two to three weeks, and if their symptoms do not improve, a sinus tomography is performed. The option of surgery arises if the pathology is shown to persist on sinus CT.
Endoscopic sinus surgery is becoming the standard for sinusitis surgery. Endoscopic sinus surgery is a procedure in which the pathology is opened and physiology is attempted. It is performed entirely intranasally under local or general anesthesia.

Even if surgery is performed, there is always the chance of recurrence, especially in sinusitis associated with allergic rhinitis. The patient should be followed up on on a regular basis, and any essential medical therapy should be administered as needed.

Endoscopic sinus surgery

The endoscopic system is made up of a cold light source and a camera at the other end. With these cameras, the image is projected onto the screen, allowing us to view dark gaps and diseased tissues that we can’t see directly. Endoscopy is most commonly employed in “endoscopic sinus surgery,” which involves procedures on the sinuses around the nose in the ENT discipline. For many years, this technique has been nearly the only approach employed in sinusitis surgery over the world.

Under local or general anesthesia, endoscopic sinus surgery is a simple procedure. For these procedures, general anesthesia is far more reliable and lasts much shorter than local anaesthetic. All procedures are carried out through the nose. Sinus surgery takes about one hour on average. The goal of the procedure is to open the infected sinuses’ mouth, remove any existing inflammation or diseased tissue, and promote airflow for the sinuses and the nose.

In expert hands, endoscopic sinus surgery has a high success rate and a very low recurrence rate. Although endoscopic sinus surgery has a success rate of 70-90 percent, effective post-operative follow-up and the detection and treatment of allergic rhinitis, if present, reduce the risk of chronic sinusitis recurrence to nearly zero. As a result, if the patient has any complaints, an allergy test will almost certainly be performed, and therapy will begin in this direction. Patients are also monitored at regular intervals to ensure that recurrences are kept to a minimum.

What is allergic sinusitis and how does it affect you?

Allergic rhinitis is a hereditary condition that can affect people of any age group if they are exposed to a triggering factor. It’s a sickness that causes repeated sneeze fits, nasal congestion, nose itching, and coughing. With the patient’s symptoms and the doctor’s examination, allergic rhinitis can be diagnosed.

Asthma and sinusitis are the most feared long-term complications of allergic rhinitis. While allergic rhinitis patients have a 25–30% chance of developing asthma, sinusitis patients have a 45–60% chance of developing sinusitis. As a result, some people refer to the condition as allergic rhinosinusitis.

Allergy to rhinosinusitis can be treated surgically.

Surgical treatment is required if the patient has nasal bone curvature (nasal septum deviation), nasal concha hypertrophy, nasal polyp, or treatment-resistant sinusitis. These procedures do not cure allergies, but if the mechanical issue is resolved, it will be easier to combat the allergen, and the patient’s overall complaints will drop by 40–60% on average.

Sinus surgery for allergic rhinitis can now be done in a fraction of the time and using certain innovative technological gear. The patient can be discharged from the hospital the day of the procedure, go home the next day, and return to work on the third or fourth day, if he so desires. However, with surgical treatment, as well as an allergic skin test, precautions, and other treatments, allergic rhinitis symptoms can be prevented for many years.

It is possible to eliminate this ailment, which causes people to become exhausted from time to time, with the proper diagnosis and therapy. It is important to emphasize that allergic rhinosinusitis is not an incurable condition.

What is Sinusitis? Sinusitis Symptoms and Sinusitis Treatment

Updated: 19 November 2021, 04:32