Due to the termination of ovulation and the synthesis of certain hormones in the female body, menopause is the permanent cessation of monthly bleeding. The most essential element of menopause for women’s health is that it is no longer feasible to have children, which means that after the age of 45–50, it is necessary to adopt a natural contraceptive method. Menopause makes it hard to become pregnant at a later age, removing a severe health risk for women and maybe preventing the birth of children who will be impossible to raise in their lifetime.
Perimenopause, a transitional period in which fertility has ended but monthly bleeding has not, can endure for up to four years, with irregular bleeding and symptoms such as hot flashes and sleep disturbances. Between the ages of 51-52 and the postmenopausal era, the menopause, which is defined as the absence of menstruation for 12 months naturally without any sickness due to the fact that practically all of the eggs have been finished and the estrogen level has dropped to the lowest levels, is noticed. The first two years after menopause are known as early postmenopause, whereas the last two years are known as late postmenopause.
Natural menopause happens between the ages of 40 and 45, and is known as early menopause. Ovarian failure is characterized as the cessation of menses before the age of 40. (primary ovarian insufficiency). Menopause produced by surgical removal of the ovaries is known as surgical menopause. Menopause caused by the removal of the ovaries is known as induced menopause. Induced menopause occurs when the ovaries are damaged by radiation or chemotherapeutic chemicals during the treatment of certain malignancies.
Despite the fact that the average age of menopause is 51, 5% of women reach menopause after the age of 55, and another 5% between the ages of 40 and 45.
The age of menopause is influenced by genetics, race, smoking, and fertility history. Early menopause is more common in women who have a family history of the condition, and various genetic abnormalities have also been linked to the condition. Menopause is delayed by two years if you smoke. Consumption of galactose, exposure to the substance diethylstilbesterol while in the mother’s womb, and working night shifts can all cause menopause at a young age. Menopause occurs earlier, despite the fact that the rationale for removing the uterus while leaving the ovaries is unknown. The age of menopause is unaffected by the usage of birth control medications.
Despite various indicators, it is impossible to anticipate when menopause will strike which woman. Some tests done on the third day of monthly bleeding can give you an idea, although they aren’t always accurate. Making comments about fertility based on the findings of these tests may generate undue concern in a woman who has not yet given birth to a child, or it may lead to a woman who no longer wants to have a child believing she has reached menopause and becoming pregnant. Even if tests indicate that a woman is nearing menopause, ovulation can occur, albeit occasionally, during this time, therefore women who do not wish to become pregnant should be protected until their menstrual bleeding has finished completely.
Reduced menstrual bleeding frequency, irregularity, and hot flushes are the most prevalent symptoms. These signs and symptoms commonly appear four years before menopause. Aside from them, sleep disturbances, mood fluctuations, and weight gain may occur.
Menstrual irregularities and hot flashes, which are menopause symptoms, can also be caused by other health issues, thus a gynecological examination is required during this time. Menstrual delays can be caused by thyroid disorders, elevated milk hormone levels, and pregnancy. The abrupt release of hormones from the adrenal glands or overworking of the thyroid gland can produce hot flashes.
Every woman will experience distinct symptoms and intensity during the transition to menopause, menopause, and thereafter, and treatment methods will be different as well. A pelvic examination, breast screening, cervical cancer screening, and routine blood tests are all part of the menopausal interview. It’s also a good idea to check on their mental health. Sexual issues, urinary issues, and sleep disturbances are all possibilities.
In addition to hot flashes, the problems that become evident in the postmenopausal period are narrowing of the vagina, dryness, painful sexual intercourse, frequent urinary tract infections, osteoporosis, increased risk of heart diseases, which become evident due to the decrease in elasticity in the structure of the tissues in the genitourinary system and loss of volume.
Significant physical and psychological changes occur in the female body throughout the transition to menopause and for the first few years after menopause. Cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis become more likely. Hormonal changes make it easier to acquire weight.
Menopause symptoms such as irregular monthly bleeding and cessation of menstrual blood, hot flashes, sweating, osteoporosis, higher risk of cardiovascular disease, dryness in the vaginal organs, and urinary difficulties are mainly caused by a drop in estrogen levels. The level and length of this pain varies greatly amongst people. While some women may be able to get through this phase with very minor symptoms, others may experience issues that necessitate treatment. Treatment is tailored to the individual’s need. Hormone support can be administered for up to 5 years with risk assessment in the case of serious impairment in quality of life. During menopause, several antidepressant medications are also used.
During menopause, bone resorption speeds up. Osteoporosis can be exceedingly severe in certain persons, resulting in silent spinal cord fractures over time. Fractures of the hip joint and wrist can occur even with mild trauma. Smoking and inactivity both raise the risk of osteoporosis.
It is defined as a 4 minute feeling of warmth in the upper body, followed by palpitations or headaches, weakness, weakness, dizziness, and lastly extreme sweating and hot flashes. It might happen frequently, especially at night, and it can be so severe that it wakes you up. In stressful and heated conditions, hot flashes occur more frequently and severely.
During menopause, four out of every five women get hot flashes. In three-quarters of women, this lasts more than a year. It will be halved in size and will last for five years. As a result, as you become older, the frequency and severity of hot flashes reduces. Maintaining a calm environment, avoiding spicy meals and caffeine, and avoiding stressful and exhausting jobs may be beneficial.
Joint and muscular pain, which has no known link to hormonal changes during menopause, is also a common complaint.
Although some sites claim that exercise can help with hot flashes, research shows that this is not the case. There is a propensity to acquire weight after menopause, and bone resorption accelerates. Exercising is extremely beneficial to our health. Weight gain can be avoided since blood circulation is increased. People who exercise have a lower risk of developing osteoporosis.
When people get older, their physiological sexual reactions and sexual activity decrease. According to studies, 50–80 percent of men and women over the age of 60 remain sexually active. In women, the quality of their relationship with their husband is the most important determinant of sexual activity.
The physiological and psychological changes that occur after menopause largely determine women’s sexual experience in later life. The urogenital mucosa weakens and thins as estrogen and progesterone levels drop, resulting in narrowing of the vagina, decreased vaginal wetness and blood flow, and decreased sensitivity of the nipple, clitoris, and vulva tissue during sexual activity. Libido, sexual sensitivity, intercourse comfort (painless sexual intercourse), and intercourse frequency all decrease. Locally applied estrogen-containing creams and suppositories are the first line of defense against these problems. Often, lubricating gels are employed.